HJS REPORT LAUNCH: “TRAFFICKING TERROR – HOW MODERN SLAVERY AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE FUND TERRORISM”
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HJS REPORT LAUNCH: “TRAFFICKING TERROR – HOW MODERN SLAVERY AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE FUND TERRORISM”
10th October 2017 @ 10:30 am - 11:30 am
There are approximately 20 to 30 million slaves in the world today.
An increasing body of evidence illustrates that the routes commonly used by traffickers – including the new ‘Black Sea Route’ to Europe – are controlled and used by terrorist organisations. How does this nexus of criminality operate, and how will it change in the future? Using the case studies of Syria, Libya, Iraq, and Nigeria, the main report author, Nikita Malik, will explain how sexual violence plays a key role in sustaining and funding trafficking and terrorist networks, and will examine the implications on UK and international laws on prosecution to address and prevent the trafficking of terrorism.
The Henry Jackson Society is pleased to invite you to the launch of its research project Trafficking Terror: How Modern Slavery and Sexual Violence Fund Terrorism . The report author Nikita Malik, Senior Research Fellow will outline the gender and legal dimensions of the crime-terror nexus that is so often overlooked and invite the other two distinguished speakers to comment.
Nikita Malik is a Senior Research Fellow at the Henry Jackson Society. She has published several ground-breaking reports backed and endorsed by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Child Soldiers, Solidarity for Refugees, and Child to Child. Nikita holds a BA (Hons) in Economics and Management and an MSc in South Asian Studies, both from the University of Oxford. She also holds a MSc in Middle Eastern Politics and Arabic from SOAS, University of London. Nikita grew up in the Middle East and worked in Jordan from 2010 to 2014, conducting projects in Iraq, Palestine, and Syria. She is fluent in four languages.
The Rt. Hon. The Lord Carlile of Berriew CBE QC: Described as one of Britain’s top legal experts, Lord Carlile held numerous judicial roles, including Recorder, Deputy High Court Judge and Chairman of the Competition Appeal Tribunal. After graduating in 1969, Lord Carlile was called to the Bar by Gray’s Inn, becoming one of the nation’s youngest QCs at the unusually young age of 36. Between 1983 to 1997, Lord Carlile was the Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Montgomeryshire. In 1999, he was created a life peer as The Baron Carlile of Berriew. In 2001, Lord Carlile was appointed as the independent reviewer of terrorism legislation and he was later honoured as a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for his service to national security. Lord Carlile has written numerous reports on counter terrorism and has further conducted three major reviews on the topic of child safeguarding. Now sitting as a non-affiliated peer, Lord Carlile is a frequent contributor to the house and is further a founding director of the political risks consultancy SC Strategy Ltd.
The Rt. Hon. The Baroness Cox of Queensbury FRCS FRCN was elevated to the House of Lords in 1982 for her contribution to education. Between 1985 to 2005, Baroness Cox served as a Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords and as a Baroness-in-Waiting to Queen Elizabeth II. Lady Cox sits as a crossbencher and is a recurrent contributor to the Lords on matters concerning international affairs. In recognition of her work in the international humanitarian and human rights arenas over the past twenty years, Baroness Cox has been decorated with state honours from Poland and the Republic of Armenia. Baroness Cox is further a holder of the internationally acclaimed; Wilberforce Award and the International Mother Teresa Award from India. Lady Cox worked as a state registered nurse in the late 1950s and has since gone on to be awarded an Honorary Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons and Honorary Doctorates by a number of leading universities from across the globe.
On the 9th October 2017, the Henry Jackson Society’s Senior Research Fellow Nikita Malik released her exceptional report titled Trafficking Terror: How Modern Slavery and Sexual Violence Fund Terrorism in an event chaired by Lord Carlile of Berriew and Baroness Cox of Queensbury. Nikita has significant expertise in women and radicalisation, the prevention and reintegration of child soldiers, and the role of families in deterring terrorism, to list a few. Having already published several ground-breaking reports backed and endorsed by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and various other institutions, Trafficking Terror is the latest in a string of fine publications.
The report outlines the tactics used by terror organisations to fund their operations. With previous sources of income obsolete, we are now seeing an increased link between human trafficking and terrorism, as well as a significant increase in the link between sexual violence and extremism. Importantly, the criminal nexus between the three components of the report (human trafficking, sexual violence and terrorism) have been mainly unexamined up until now. Ultimately, Malik suggests that prevention, process and prosecution are the key elements of justice that are missing when bringing those responsible to account. With ISIS, for example, losing territory by the day, they have been increasingly turning to trafficking as a way of creating a new stream of income. Furthermore, with people trafficked in from further afield via the Sahel region of North Africa and further East into Asia, the ideology of ISIS continues to spread far and wide. As a result, we must look into forms of prevention and ways of bringing about prosecution, the question being ‘how best do we use laws, national and international, in order to provide justice’?
The use of sexual violence has more justifications within terror groups than is immediately obvious. What must be taken into account beyond the extreme brutality of what it entails is both the propaganda stream that develops from it, and the worrying reality that sexual violence is being used to create the next generation of jihadi fighters – almost all children born as a result of these actions are immediately removed from the mother and are kept under the control of terror organisation responsible.
Furthermore, in the parts of the world in which extremism are rife, there is a significant stigma towards those who speak out about sexual violence. With the worrying reality that even in the UK women are often too scared to publicly speak out about sexual violence until only after the death of the perpetrator, the issue is considerably worse in areas home to terror organisations such as ISIS. In Syria, the laws regarding sexual violence are poor, and Nikita’s report states that they must be brought in line with international standards to help prevent further sexual violence.
With the International Centre for Counter Terrorism upholding the Human Trafficking and Rome Trafficking Regulations, they have still only been able to prosecute one individual for sexual trafficking to date. As a result, Nikita’s report has urged for the creation of a new legal task force, fronted by the UK government that will tackle the illicit economies in which it is easier for trafficking to take place, and will uphold and further-enforce the values and rules of international law regarding trafficking and sexual violence.
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