Looking further ahead, some strategic analysts question whether a successful PESCO could become a rival to the US-UK defence axis that has been so dominant in Nato since the end of the Second World War.
For James Rogers, the director of the Global Britain programme at the Henry Jackson Society that looks at the future of British foreign and defence policy, the combination of EU integration, Brexit and the US ‘turning away’ towards China and the Indo-Pacific, risks leaving Britain on the sidelines.
“The risk from PESCO is not an ‘EU army’ but the creation of a rival, European defence focus group over time, since the logic of integration is always more integration,” he says. “The risk is that the EU position becomes much more integrated and solidified, and much harder for the US and the UK to engage.”
Read more in the Telegraph