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A new report from The Henry Jackson Society, Turkey and The West in Syria: Course Correction, argues that Western policy towards Turkey must change in light of the nature of Turkish involvement in Syria. Having initially attempted to improve relations with its neighbors, Turkey has been drawn deeper into the war. Beginning by supporting the opposition’s defence of populations against the regime of Bashar al-Assad, Turkey has redirected significant resources to contain the influence of the Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK), whose Syrian affiliate has become the primary ground ally of the U.S.-led Coalition against the Islamic State (IS).
Turkey’s involvement has had contradictory results: it has been a lifeline to the mainstream opposition but also a boost to Islamists; it has created rifts between al-Qaeda and the mainstream rebellion, whilst empowering groups that enable al-Qaeda; it has sustained the most effective anti-IS rebel groups, and now fights IS directly, yet Turkey’s open-border policy allowed tens of thousands of foreign jihadists to join IS.
The Turkish confrontation with the PKK inside Syria might yet be to IS’s benefit, while the crackdown after Turkey’s attempted coup has seen a number of key military officials with whom the West was working against IS removed. The paper’s key recommendations include: